Carnegie Mellon


This is an archived website containing project information published by the TechBridgeWorld research group at Carnegie Mellon University (2004 - 2016). A summary of our projects and accomplishments and links to publications can be found at Last updated on March 16, 2016.

Braille Tutor

Literacy has been shown to be a key factor in global development. For many visually impaired communities around the world, learning braille is the only means of literacy. Despite its significance and the accessibility it brings, learning to write braille still has a number of barriers. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 90% of visually impaired people worldwide live in developing communities. Despite the importance of literacy to employment, social well-being, and health, the literacy rate of this population is estimated to be very low. There are many different factors that contribute to illiteracy among people with vision impairments such as: difficulties using the traditional tool for writing braille (the slate and stylus) and the high cost of alternative braille writing tools.

Pictured from left to right: a student in India writing with a slate and stylus on paper; an example slate and stylus; the English alphabet in braille; and a student in India working with a version of the Braille Tutor

In braille, each character is formed using a subset of six embossed dots placed in a cell of two columns and three rows. When writing braille with a slate and stylus, paper is inserted into the slate, and the mirror image of the braille letter must be embossed so that the braille letter can be read when the paper is turned over.

In developing communities, braille is almost always written with a slate and stylus. For blind children, learning to write braille in this manner can be a challenging process as they: (1) must learn mirror images of the letters, (2) may not have the individual guidance they need, (3) experience delayed feedback, and (4) must use limited or expensive paper supplies.

In response to the observed need for enhancing literacy for the blind in underserved communities, the TechBridgeWorld research group at Carnegie Mellon University developed the Braille Writing Tutor, an automated tutor with audio feedback that connects to a computer, to provide guided practice for beginners learning to write braille. A battery-powered standalone version of the tutor with onboard computing was also developed. Both versions aim to help users learn and practice writing braille through the slate and stylus method.

Braille Writing TutorThe Braille Writing Tutor (BT) is an intelligent tutoring device, which helps users learn and practice writing braille. As the user writes on the electronic slate with the stylus, the tutor provides immediate audio feedback by repeating the written dots, letters, numbers or words. The tutor also guides writing and corrects mistakes. The main objective is to teach braille writing through guided practice. The immediate audio feedback serves as a diagnostic tool for instructors, giving them a real-time understanding of what concepts the user did and did not grasp. Early versions of the BT have been field tested twice in India with our partner, the Mathru School for the Blind (2006 and 2008), once in Tanzania (2009), and have been introduced to schools and institutions in the United States, Bangladesh, China, Qatar, and Zambia. Pictured: Version 2 of the BT

Standalone Braille Writing Tutor
Pictured from left to right: SABT advanced, intermediate and primary user interfaces.

The Stand-Alone Braille Writing Tutor (SABT) is the latest version of the BT that addresses the challenges of power failures and lack of access to computers in developing communities. Motivated by feedback from the Mathru School for the Blind and TechBridgeWorld's user groups around the world, the SABT conserves all of the BT's features, is designed to work without an external computer, and can operate with a built-in rechargeable battery pack. Moreover, the SABT includes three user interfaces (primary, intermediate and advanced) so that teachers can select the appropriate interface to match the skill level of the student.


How can I get a BWT?

The Braille Writing Tutor (BWT) hardware and software schematics are open source, so that it is free for anyone to make. Here is the link to download the relevant files: Please feel free to download the software and provide the hardware specifications to a local manufacturer who could make the Braille Writing Tutor device and either donate it or provide it to you at a lower price.


M. Bernardine Dias (PI)
Ameer Abdulsalam
Rotimi Abimbola
Hatem Alismail
Sarah Belousov
Nikhil Bikchandani
Brett Browning
Edward Cai
Shumana Chowdhury
Madeleine Clute
Yonina Cooper
Daniel Dewey
M. Beatrice Dias
M. Freddie Dias
Samitha Ekanayake
Amal El-Ghazaly
Noura El-Moughny
Alex Etling
Imran Fanaswala
Hend Gedawy
Wael Ghazzawi
Gary Giger
Maddie Gioffre
Bradley Hall
Salem Hilal
Jen Horwitz
Nidhi Kalra
Poornima Kaniarasu

Aditya Kodkany
David Kosbie
Nick LaGrow
Tom Lauwers
Pengfei Li
Jessica Lo
Brian Manalastas
Jeffrey Mich
Jonathan Muller
Lutfun Nahar
Vivek Nair
Daniel Nuffer
Kaleem Rahman
Shree Lakshmi Rao
Neha Rathi
Lucas Ray
Saurabh Sanghvi
Aveed Sheikh
Aysha Siddique
Tom Stepleton
Kory Stiger
Jeremy Stolarz
Dylan Swen
Ermine Teves
Anthony Velázquez
Zi Wang
Avia Weinstein
Tangrui Zuo

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